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Tunnellingisanexcitingandrapidlyevolvingtechnology.Pioneeringprocesses are commonplace and innovative thinking continues to rewrite the rules. In civil engineering, tunnelling is one of the few areas where new horizons are constantly being discovered. But for the profession to reach its full potential, tunnelling needs to be more accessible to those talented engineers in search of new challenges and keen to make lasting contributions to society. In the eyes of too many, tunnelling is still seen as the exclusive domain of too few: a mysterious art form, accessible only to those who have already spent countless years perfecting their approach, a skill whose secrets remain suppressed. Over the following pages I hope to show that tunnelling need not be a closed book. I have omitted methods and de?nitions that depended more on h- torical precedent than modern scienti?c evaluation. Instead of confusing the reader with countless details and de?nitions that are in any case open to change, I have focused on the underlying concepts that make tunnelling e- ier to grasp. Sowhilethisbookisdesignedtoprovideaconcise, up-to-dateandusefulframe of reference to all those newly quali?ed and engaged in the ?eld, I hope that it will also serve to reveal to those talented engineers who thought they had found their niche above ground the very real opportunities and unanswered questions that await them underground
A thorough understanding of the form, function, and design of animals is essential to any working biologist's knowledge. In the author's view, however, this fast-growing field of study can be made much more exciting and accessible with a hands-on, practical approach. This view is the basis for A Practical Guide to Vertebrate Mechanics. This text can be considered an engineering book for biologists. The emphasis is on vertebrates, and each topic begins with a discussion of the underlying principles, followed immediately by practical experiments and laboratory exercises. The author begins with a refresher on scaling and measurement. This is followed by three chapters on the mechanical properties of materials--investigating elasticity, the strength of materials, and how things break. This leads the discussion to animal materials--bones, joints, muscles--which serve to illustrate principles of structure and load, lubrication, physiology, metabolism, and stamina. Finally, the systems are put in motion, as we discuss terrestrial locomotion, flight, and swimming. What sets this book apart from others on functional anatomy is the emphasis on practical work. Many of the experiments are simple to conduct. Detailed instructions for setting up the experiments are given in an appendix, and sample results are included to guide the student. A Practical Guide to Vertebrate Mechanics will form an important part of undergraduate and beginning graduate courses for zoology, anatomy, biomechanics, and paleontology students. Chris McGowan is Professor in the Department of Zoology at the University of Toronto and Curator in the Department of Palaeobiology at the Royal Ontario Museum. Several of his previous books include,The Raptor and the Lamb: Offense and Defense in the Living World (1997), Make Your Own Dinosaur Out of Chicken Bones: Foolproof Instructions for Budding Palaeontologists (1997), and Diatoms to Dinosaurs (1994).
Across the centuries, the development and growth of mathematical concepts have been strongly stimulated by the needs of mechanics. Vector algebra was developed to describe the equilibrium of force systems and originated from Stevin's experiments (1548-1620). Vector analysis was then introduced to study velocity fields and force fields. Classical dynamics required the differential calculus developed by Newton (1687). Nevertheless, the concept of particle acceleration was the starting point for introducing a structured spacetime. Instantaneous velocity involved the set of particle positions in space. Vector algebra theory was not sufficient to compare the different velocities of a particle in the course of time. There was a need to (parallel) transport these velocities at a single point before any vector algebraic operation. The appropriate mathematical structure for this transport was the connection. I The Euclidean connection derived from the metric tensor of the referential body was the only connection used in mechanics for over two centuries. Then, major steps in the evolution of spacetime concepts were made by Einstein in 1905 (special relativity) and 1915 (general relativity) by using Riemannian connection. Slightly later, nonrelativistic spacetime which includes the main features of general relativity I It took about one and a half centuries for connection theory to be accepted as an independent theory in mathematics. Major steps for the connection concept are attributed to a series of findings: Riemann 1854, Christoffel 1869, Ricci 1888, Levi-Civita 1917, WeyJ 1918, Cartan 1923, Eshermann 1950.
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