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Teaching mechanical and structural biomaterials concepts for successful medical implant design, this self-contained text provides a complete grounding for students and newcomers to the field. Split into three sections: Materials, Mechanics and Case Studies, it begins with a review of sterilization, biocompatibility and foreign body response before presenting the fundamental structures of synthetic biomaterials and natural tissues. Mechanical behavior of materials is then discussed in depth, covering elastic deformation, viscoelasticity and time-dependent behavior, multiaxial loading and complex stress states, yielding and failure theories, and fracture mechanics. The final section on clinical aspects of medical devices provides crucial information on FDA regulatory issues and presents case studies in four key clinical areas: orthopedics, cardiovascular devices, dentistry and soft tissue implants. Each chapter ends with a list of topical questions, making this an ideal course textbook for senior undergraduate and graduate students, and also a self-study tool for engineers, scientists and clinicians.
Following Volumes III and IV that dealt with the fracture mechanics of concrete emphasizing both material testing and structural application in general, it was felt that specimen size and loading rate effects for concrete require further attention. The only criterion that has thus far successfully linearized the highly nonlinear crack growth data of concrete is the strain energy density theory. In particular, the crack growth resistance curves plotting the strain energy density factor versus crack growth known as the SR*curves are straight lines as specimen size and loading steps or rates are altered. This allows the extrapolation of data and provides a useful design methodology. This book is unique in that it is devoted specifically to the application of the strain energy density theory to civil engineering structural members made of concrete. Analyzed in detail is the strain softening behavior of concrete for a variety of different components including the influence of steel reinforcement. Permanent damage of the material is accounted for each increment of loading by invoking the mechanism of elastic unloading. This assumption is justified in concrete structures where the effective stiffness depends primarily on the crack growth rate and load history. Crack growth data are presented in terms of SR-curves with emphases placed on scaling specimen size which alone can change the mode of failure from plastic collapse to brittle fracture. Loading rate effects can also be scaled to control failure by yielding and fracture.
For physicists, mechanics is quite obviously geometric, yet the classical approach typically emphasizes abstract, mathematical formalism. Setting out to make mechanics both accessible and interesting for non-mathematicians, Richard Talman uses geometric methods to reveal qualitative aspects of the theory. He introduces concepts from differential geometry, differential forms, and tensor analysis, then applies them to areas of classical mechanics as well as other areas of physics, including optics, crystal diffraction, electromagnetism, relativity, and quantum mechanics. For easy reference, the author treats Lagrangian, Hamiltonian, and Newtonian mechanics separately -- exploring their geometric structure through vector fields, symplectic geometry, and gauge invariance respectively. Practical perturbative methods of approximation are also developed. This second, fully revised edition has been expanded to include new chapters on electromagnetic theory, general relativity, and string theory. 'Geometric Mechanics' features illustrative examples and assumes only basic knowledge of Lagrangian mechanics.
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