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A general approach to the derivation of equations of motion of as holonomic, as nonholonomic systems with the constraints of any order is suggested. The system of equations of motion in the generalized coordinates is regarded as a one vector relation, represented in a space tangential to a manifold of all possible positions of system at given instant. The tangential space is partitioned by the equations of constraints into two orthogonal subspaces. In one of them for the constraints up to the second order, the motion low is given by the equations of constraints and in the other one for ideal constraints, it is described by the vector equation without reactions of connections. In the whole space the motion low involves Lagrangian multipliers. It is shown that for the holonomic and nonholonomic constraints up to the second order, these multipliers can be found as the function of time, positions of system, and its velocities. The application of Lagrangian multipliers for holonomic systems permits us to construct a new method for determining the eigenfrequencies and eigenforms of oscillations of elastic systems and also to suggest a special form of equations for describing the system of motion of rigid bodies. The nonholonomic constraints, the order of which is greater than two, are regarded as programming constraints such that their validity is provided due to the existence of generalized control forces, which are determined as the functions of time. The closed system of differential equations, which makes it possible to find as these control forces, as the generalized Lagrange coordinates, is compound. The theory suggested is illustrated by the examples of a spacecraft motion. The book is primarily addressed to specialists in analytic mechanics.
This monograph is written within the framework of the quantum mechanical paradigm. It is modest in scope in that it is restricted to some observations and solved illustrative problems not readily available in any of the many standard (and several excellent) texts or books with solved problems that have been written on this subject. Additionally a few more or less standard problems are included for continuity and purposes of comparison. The hope is that the points made and problems solved will give the student some additional insights and a better grasp of this fascinating but mathematically somewhat involved branch of physics. The hundred and fourteen problems discussed have intentionally been chosen to involve a minimum of technical complexity while still illustrating the consequences of the quantum-mechanical formalism. Concerning notation, useful expressions are displayed in rectangular boxes while calculational details which one may wish to skip are included in square brackets. Beirut HARRY A. MAVROMATIS June, 1985 IX Preface to Second Edition More than five years have passed since I prepared the first edition of this mono- graph. The present revised edition is more attractive in layout than its predecessor, and most, if not all of the errors in the original edition (many of which were kindly pointed out by reviewers, colleagues, and students) have now been corrected. Additionally the material in the original fourteen chapters has been extended with significant additions to Chapters 8, 13, and 14.
The goal of this text is to present some of the basic ideas of fluid mechanics in a mathematically attractive manner, to present the physical background and motivation for some constructions that have been used in recent mathematical and numerical work on the Navier- Stokes equations and on hyperbolic systems, and to interest some of the students in this beautiful and difficult subject. The third edition has incorporated a number of updates and revisions, but the spirit and scope of the original book are unaltered.
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